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Glossary

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CAT Tools
The acronym CAT (Computer-Assisted Translation) describes a set of tools that translators use to optimize their work. CAT tools do not replace the role of the translators. Instead, they offer an exact version when the text corresponds to previous translations, allowing for savings in the management of documents subject to periodic updates.

CMS
CMS (Content Management System) is a program used to manage large volumes of multilingual content or documents. It can automate the process of creating, managing, editing, publishing, and updating documents.

Conference
A meeting in which the subject is the announcement of a new idea or breaking news. The goal is to convey information to the largest possible audience.

Consecutive interpreting
Consecutive interpreting is performed for an audience or large group. The interpreter listens while taking notes, and then translates for the audience. One interpreter is usually required for each of the two target languages. A single interpreter for two target languages is permitted only if the job involves less than 4 hours of work. The fee is for an entire day, and there are no partial-day charges.

Convention
A meeting of hundreds or even thousands of participants with the same professional, political, cultural or religious interests. It is usually held every year if it is national in scope, or every few years if it is an international event.

Corporate Meeting
A meeting intended to provide information regarding a given situation, requesting and promoting consensus among participants (information for agents or clients about programs, products, and market choices made by a company – information to potential voters regarding a party’s political plan, etc.).

Legalization/Apostille
This is an acknowledgement by the District Attorney (Procuratore della Repubblica) of the authenticity of the signature and legal qualification of the public official who signed the certificate.

Liaison Interpreting
An interpreter translates the speech of the two interested parties. An hourly fee is charged (with a minimum of 2 hours). A surcharge is usually levied for overtime exceeding 8 hours of work.

Meeting
A group meeting in a well-defined professional, cultural, religious, political, or social context.

Post-editing
A final revision service which precedes the translation process. Its purpose is to further prepare the source text to make it smoother and better adapted to the target translation.

Project Manager
A person who oversees and coordinates all phases involved in a translation project, and who is responsible for the quality and punctuality of the service (agreements with the client, delivery and receipt of texts to/from translators, coordination of schedules and urgent requests, managing revisions, final check, and on-time delivery). An effective Project Manager is excellent at multitasking and organization.

Proofreading
A type of revision that is equivalent to the traditional “checking of rough drafts”; i.e., verification of the form and graphic appearance of the translation only.

Public Meeting
A smaller gathering than a convention, which does not occur on a regular basis. It is held by an group organized to open a discussion, publicly address a specific subject or problem, communicate results through mutual exchange, and foster greater critical contributions from participants.

Seminar
A meeting of 100 people at most, all from a particular sector, but with different skill levels. The goal is to enhance the professionalism of participants through training on a specific theme.

Simultaneous Interpreting
This service is performed in a booth and requires two interpreters at the same time, who alternate at regular intervals. A single interpreter per booth is allowed for jobs that continue for 40 minutes or less, interspersed by breaks of similar duration. The fee is for an entire day and there are no partial-day charges.

Sworn or certified translation
This is a certification that a translation is faithful to the original text. It is required when a foreign document must be presented to the Italian authorities, or an Italian document to foreign authorities (contracts, legal and notary paperwork, diplomas, personal documents, Chamber of Commerce certifications, documents for international adoptions, etc.).

Symposium
A meeting by invitation only, which is intended for experts with similar skills in a given sector, generally scientific, who exchange ideas on projects or research programs.

Round Table
A meeting involving a small number of experts, for the purpose of examining and discussing specialized subjects. It may be “private” (behind closed doors) or “open” to the public to raise awareness of the themes being dealt with and to elicit possible participation from government officials.

TM
Translation Memory. A translation memory is a database of strings of text (called “translation units”) in which sources and targets extracted from translated documents are matched as linguistic pairs that are stored for subsequent reuse. The documents to be translated are segmented, and the various translation units are compared with those stored in the database.

UNI EN 15038:2006
Standard UNI EN 15038:2006 is the first European standard in the sector that specifies quality requirements for translation services. It ensures that organizational procedures are optimized and operating procedures are standardized, that the quality of the service meets the standard, that inefficiencies are reduced, and that translators and revisers are selected, qualified, and suited to the task.

Whispering
Simultaneous translation whispered into the ear of the listener or listeners (up to 3 persons) without the aid of a sound system. It requires two interpreters for jobs exceeding 4 hours.

Workshop
A meeting of a small number of specialists, with the goal of learning about or increasing knowledge of a specific technical subject.